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Types of Software Development Models

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When initiating a new software development project, it is essential to consider different steps that broadly impact its final rollout phase.

This will ensure the software functions appropriately and effectively by providing the intended solutions. Therefore, the steps required for a software to work properly include; development, testing, coding/implementation, and frequent maintenance.

Whichever app or software you are creating, proper development and the testing plan are vital aspects to consider to realize success in completing any project.

In addition, the development plan by the developer’s guides in seeking an appropriate model for building an app with required functionalities based on clients’ specific needs. It also provides room for developing authentic and safe apps or software for numerous individuals or companies.

What are software development models?

What are software development models

What are software development models

Software development models are the numerous methodologies selected to develop a project by considering the goals and aims of the project. Several cycle models with specific structures can currently achieve different objectives appropriate for creating a required software or app.

The models manage the tasks at various stages, from initial feasibility to completion. Since software development services are complicated processes, it becomes vital to utilize the varied development models for smooth and desired success.

Let’s look at the different types of software development models.

Waterfall model

The waterfall model is a steady development process of software in a linear flow from the initial to the implementation phase. Only one step begins after the previous stage has finished. Its development stages include; design, analysis, testing, coding, and deployment, meaning the process takes a cascade mode.

The waterfall model takes place where software requirements are not re-evaluated further in the development process. It is productive in projects that don’t anticipate future unforeseen changes at the development stages. This results from the model not supporting going backward to completed phases.

Merits and demerits of the waterfall

Merit: It is simple and easily understandable. The waterfall is an ideal and manageable model for handling small projects whose proven requirements are in the final phase.

Demerit: Its structure is rigid. The rigid structure of the waterfall model makes it hard to work well when developing complex projects that need changes at different phases of development.


The v-model is an integrated extension of the waterfall model with its move bending upwards after the coding and implantation phase. It’s different from the v-model since the testing planning process is at the early stages. The movement of the process is downward, then upwards. Therefore, every downward sequence corresponds with an upward sequence.

Merits and demerits of V-model

Merits: Simple to use with specific deliverables. The model is highly productive since it yields a greater success rate due to regular test plans at various phases.

Demerits: V-model is very inflexible. The rigid structure of the v-model makes it not ideal for projects with unpredictable upgrades in the future.

Incremental model

The incremental model comprises iterative developmental stages divided into smaller sections. The smaller sections allow software developers to take insights and learn from previous development phases.

Merits and demerits of incremental model

Merits: the incremental model enables Increased and improved user involvement. The model offers an exceptional solution to projects that need changes like upgrading.

Demerits: preliminary analysis: users can get confused about the prototype within the finished system.

RAD model

The complete form of the name is Rapid Application Development. The RAD model is a re-adjusted incremental model with several components developed concurrently and compiled into working prototypes.

Merits and demerits of the RAD model

Merits: Reduced time for development. The model allows immediate customer feedback in the development phases of the software.

Demerits: Applicability of the RAD model takes a limited approach. Most projects can be divided into several increments with excellent planning and modeling skills that need highly experienced developers. Issues resulting from assembling components at the final phase bring unforeseen setbacks.

Agile model

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The agile model is an entrenched process in user engagement and adaptability alongside deliverables of software components with unique functioning. The elegant model comprises incremental and iterative features because it divides the product development into smaller increments provided in bits of iterations.

Merits and demerits of the agile model

Merits: Efficient time management process. The model aligns continuous feedback and communication to the path of clear direction.

Demerits: The agile model is prone to veering-off track because the method relies on the end-users interaction.

Iterative model

The model considers specific parts in software for the implementation process rather than starting with packed requirements. After a product is built within an iteration, it is analyzed and improved in the next iteration phase. The model depends mainly on the step-by-step development process of the creation.

Merits and demerits of iterative model

Merits: Identifying problems is easy. Using this model, the development of a product is gradual, making it easy to trace issues promptly.

Demerits: The phases of iteration are rigid. The iterative model phases do not overlap because they are inflexible, making them slow and costly.

Prototype model

The model depends on different software and system application versions to visualize numerous components of the software. The model is essential in limiting the gap of understanding by providing ample collaboration and timely feedback by users.

Merits and demerits of prototype model

Merit: The model is efficient in yielding reduced time and development costs since the user is heavily relied upon

Demerits: Confusion can quickly arise between prototype and final product, resulting in more development time for the prototype.

Spiral model

The spiral model integrates both waterfall and iterative model elements to combine bottom-up and top-down production methods. The model comprises four phases: design, identification, evaluation, and risk analysis.

Merits and demerits of the spiral model

Merit: manages risks by dividing the development process into phases. This ensures accurate estimates can be done for the budget after problems are discussed earlier.

Demerits: the model is primarily customized, making the repurposing process confusing. The model needs experienced individuals with good at-risk evaluation.


Software development models work based on their features. Combining the models can help in improving the functionality of applications and software in the development phases.


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