(CTN News) – In a noteworthy development, U.S. life expectancy witnessed a significant increase last year, reflecting the easing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that the 2022 rise was primarily driven by a decline in COVID-19 deaths.
However, despite this positive trend, the nation’s life expectancy has only managed to reach 77 years and 6 months, hovering around levels observed two decades ago.
This article explores the factors influencing the fluctuation in life expectancy and highlights the persistent challenges that continue to shape the health landscape in the United States.
The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact:
The COVID-19 pandemic has undeniably left an indelible mark on U.S. life expectancy.
The initial shockwaves of the virus resulted in a precipitous decline, with the measure plummeting from 78 years and 10 months in 2019 to 76 years and 5 months in 2021. The toll has been severe, claiming over 1.1 million lives since early 2020.
The recent increase in life expectancy, reaching 77 years and 6 months in 2022, is a welcome shift.
This improvement is largely attributed to the decline in COVID-19 deaths, which accounted for 84% of the overall increase. Notably, heart disease deaths also contributed positively, comprising around 4% of the rise.
However, experts caution that heart disease deaths increased during the pandemic, indicating a complex interplay of factors in the evolving health landscape.
Challenges Beyond the Pandemic:
While the decline in COVID-19 deaths is a positive driver, the U.S. faces other health challenges that temper the overall improvement in life expectancy.
Suicides reached an all-time high last year, with the national suicide rate hitting levels not seen since 1941, according to a CDC report.
Additionally, drug overdose deaths, after a brief respite, showed a slight increase last year, with a continued upward trajectory in the first six months of the current year.
Global Comparisons and Uneven Rebound:
U.S. life expectancy continues to lag behind that of many other countries, and its rebound has been slower compared to some European nations like France, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The variations in recovery are also evident among different racial and ethnic groups.
While life expectancy increased for all groups, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Alaska Natives experienced more substantial gains, rebounding from significant losses early in the pandemic.
The rise in U.S. life expectancy is a positive development, driven by a decline in COVID-19 deaths. However, the nation is not out of the woods yet, as challenges such as suicides and drug overdoses persist.
The disparities among racial and ethnic groups highlight the need for targeted public health interventions.
As the nation navigates the post-pandemic era, attention must be directed not only towards the immediate threats but also towards the broader determinants of health that shape the well-being of the population.
Notable Findings from the Latest Report on Life Expectancy
- Life expectancy increased for both men and women, and for every racial and ethnic group.
- The decline in COVID-19 deaths drove 84% of the increase in life expectancy. The next largest contributor was a decline in heart disease deaths, credited with about 4% of the increase. But experts note that heart disease deaths increased during COVID-19, and both factored into many pandemic-era deaths.
- Changes in life expectancy varied by race and ethnicity. Hispanic Americans and American Indians and Alaska Natives saw life expectancy rise more than two years in 2022. Black life expectancy rose more than 1 1/2 years. Asian American life expectancy rose one year and white life expectancy rose about 10 months.
- But the changes are relative, because Hispanic Americans and Native Americans were hit harder at the beginning of COVID-19. Hispanic life expectancy dropped more than four years between 2019 and 2021, and Native American life expectancy fell more than six years.
- “A lot of the large increases in life expectancy are coming from the groups that suffered the most from COVID,” said Mark Hayward, a University of Texas sociology professor who researches how different factors affect adult deaths. “They had more to rebound from.”