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How are Condenser Microphones Made?



Condenser microphones

Condenser microphones are excellent for studio work. Many professional musicians take advantage of this microphone type to make recordings. Their detail and accuracy make these microphones the top choice for album recordings. They can record essentially any instrument.

While they are perfect for studio work, condenser microphones aren’t well-suited for live recordings. That’s because of the way they are made. To understand what type of microphone is the best for your needs, it’s important to understand how they work.

Let’s take a closer look at how condenser microphones are created and what makes them suitable for working with accurate sounds.

How do condenser microphones work?

Condenser microphones take advantage of electrostatic principles. They are using charged metal plates for accurate sound generation.

This type of mic has two charged metal plates, one fixed metal plate (also called the backplate), and a movable diaphragm. Together they form a capacitator. When the sound reaches the diaphragm and hits it, the distance between the two charged plates changes. This in turn changes the capacitance. It produces the electrical signal that corresponds to the initial sound.

The high impedance of a condenser mic makes it necessary to use a buffer amplifier. This helps the signal conversion so it has a lower impedance. The amplifier needs a power source, which is usually the internal battery or the phantom power line.

What are the features of a condenser microphone?

Condenser microphones have higher sensitivity and lower noise clarity than dynamic microphones. As a result, when they pick up a loud sound, they can’t process it. In fact, the loud sound can interfere with the way a microphone works. That’s why it’s imperative to use this microphone in the right setting.

A condenser mic lacks the integrity of a dynamic microphone. When you review DPA Condenser Microphones specifications, keep in mind that no matter how great this mic is for your needs, you have to be careful with it. Dropping the microphone on the floor could damage it beyond repair. Additionally, high levels of humidity could also have a negative effect on the microphone.

The features of a condenser mic include:

· Typical output impedance – usually around 200 Ohms

· High transducer impedance

· Typical frequency response of 20 Hz to 20kHz or better.

These microphones are typically suitable for high-quality sound recording especially when extra sensitivity is required. Their delicate makeup also makes these mics more expensive than their dynamic counterparts. Meanwhile, condenser microphones require proper maintenance.

Power for Condenser Microphones

Condenser microphones require an external power source to work properly. Back in the early 20th century, condenser mics had tube electronics. They received power from external PCU boxes that were about eight inches long. Having a power source that big was highly inconvenient. Especially, when people had to use several microphones simultaneously.

In the mid-20th century, the need for PSU boxes and cables was replaced by phantom power. However, modern microphones need too much power to be handled by the phantom power supply. That’s why manufacturers went back to tube technology. Thankfully, the components are much less bulky now.

Pros of Condenser Microphone

· Compared to dynamic microphones, the assembly of the diaphragm is light. That’s why it moves easily and captures a wider range of high frequencies.

· With a condenser mic. It’s easy to get a flat frequency response.

· Due to their makeup, it’s possible to make condenser microphones small, which makes recording more comfortable.

Cons of Condenser Microphone

· The delicate condenser microphone can’t handle high signal levels.

· These microphones are more complex than dynamics mics. That’s why they are highly sensitive to impact, temperature fluctuations, and humidity.

· Good condenser mics are expensive. Less expensive models can produce some external noise from the electronics.

While condenser microphones are delicate and more capricious than dynamic microphones, they are often the tool of choice for many musicians.

The Takeaway

Condenser microphones are complex pieces of equipment. Their delicate features make them highly vulnerable to impact and the environment. The same delicacy makes it easy for them to pick up high-frequency sounds.

By taking care of condenser mics properly, it’s easy to take advantage of them for decades. However, if you need a mic for live performance, dynamic microphones are the best choice.


Salman Ahmad is a seasoned writer for CTN News, bringing a wealth of experience and expertise to the platform. With a knack for concise yet impactful storytelling, he crafts articles that captivate readers and provide valuable insights. Ahmad's writing style strikes a balance between casual and professional, making complex topics accessible without compromising depth.

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