( CTN NEWS) – The Coronavirus disease COVID-19 has now become ubiquitous, and its history is constantly being rewritten. An overview of the current situation is given in this article: where they believe the virus originated, how it compares with other respiratory diseases, and what treatments and vaccines are currently being investigated for its treatment.
On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was formally notified about a cluster of cases of pneumonia in Wuhan City, home to 11 million people and the cultural and economic hub of central China. Five days earlier, WHO had been notified of 59 cases, none of which had been fatal.1 Ten days after that, WHO had been notified of 282 confirmed cases, of which four were in Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. Six people have died and 51 are severely ill in Wuhan. Twelve are in critical condition.COVID-19 was caused by a novel coronavirus, COVID-19. The virus was isolated on 7 January and its genome was shared on 12 January.
Coronaviruses in man
COVID-19 was probably transmitted from bats to other animals and then to humans at the Huanan wet market in Wuhan City based on phylogenetic analysis.5.Pangolins, nocturnal anteaters imported illegally for their flesh, are thought to have served as the intermediate vector. There is a coronavirus in this animal that resembles COVID-19 but differs in a region that determines viral infectivity and host range. The virus may have entered humans and, as it mutated through adaptation as it infected more people, acquired the characteristics that allowed it to spread so quickly.
Coronaviruses have caused outbreaks of respiratory infections in humans before COVID-19 There have been six other cases identified so far, all believed to originate from animals.NL63 and 229E probably came from bats; OC43 and HKU1 probably originated in rodents. The four coronaviruses that are now endemic in humans cause 10%–15% of the common cold8. There is little difference between these viruses, but OC43 has ancestry as a bovine coronavirus that may have caused a pandemic at the end of the 19th century.
What is the difference between major respiratory viral infections?
The majority of MERS-COVID-19 outbreaks now occur from animal-to-human transmission (possibly associated with camel calving season). Person-to-person transmission depends on close contacts, such as when a patient is receiving care or if they are in a hospital. In one day in May 2015, a person with MERS infected 186 people in Korea.
WHO in conjunction with governments has recommended travel restrictions and lockdown measures to control the transmission of disease. Therefore, they are not merely indicators of natural pathogenicity
An infection with COVID-19
The COVID-19 virus, like SARS-CoV-2, can survive in aerosols for hours and can survive on surfaces such as stainless steel, plastic, and cardboard for days. However, washing with soap or detergent will destroy the virus. Asymptomatic incubation can continue for up to two weeks after the onset of symptoms, and transmission can occur during the asymptomatic incubation phase (about 50–60% of cases).
The virus is spread to three other people on average after each infection8. The incubation period varies from 1–to 14 days. Asymptomatic infection may develop into a subclinical infection, mild illness, or even death; deterioration can occur rapidly, particularly during the second week of illness.8 Viral loads are 60 times higher in people with severe symptoms than in mild cases Hospitalization rates and crude mortality rates in Europe from 1 April to 22 April, showing a correlation with increasing age, indicate that pneumonia and inflammation are the major causes of death.
Currently evaluating treatments for COVID-19
In the case of COVID-19 complications, non-invasive or mechanical ventilation is most commonly used to manage the condition. In critically ill patients, vasopressors may be needed in addition to antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections.