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Drugs and Incarceration in Thailand



"Thailand's prisons are the eighth-most crowded in the world"

“Thailand’s prisons are the eighth-most crowded in the world”


BANGKOK – Last month, Justice Minister PaiboonKoomchaya’s announcement that methamphetamine will be removed from the list of Category 1 hard narcotics. It was met with controversy but it is a welcome change to a policy that has devastated Thai society.

According to the Thai Corrections Department, Thailand has a prison population of 371,347 which is the 8th largest prison population in the world and accounts for about 40% of the those incarcerated in Southeast Asia. About 70% of the Thai prison population is for drug related crimes.

The drug trade has not been deterred by strict tactics that have led to staggering arrest figures.

The drug trade has not been deterred by strict tactics that have led to staggering arrest figures.


The most commonly used illegal methamphetamine is Yaba. It is generally taken orally but can also be inhaled or injected. The drug is addictive and habit forming.  It is a stimulant that can keep users awake for days and generate hallucinations. The drug is harmful but being found guilty of possession of Yaba can be more destructive. When Yaba was categorized as a hard narcotic, a finding of guilt resulted 1 to 10 years in prison.

It is generally accepted that incarceration is required by a civil society to maintain order and protection from individuals whose release could be danger to the general public. But there is a cost to incarceration. With hundreds of thousands of individuals locked up, the public is required expend large amounts of financial resources to house them, feed them, provide health services, and also supervise them. These financial resources should be redirected to preventing serious crimes like violence, theft, embezzlement, and other crimes with victims.

The pills come in a pretty rainbow of colours purple, pink, orange and green and boast flavours such as chocolate and strawberry

The pills come in a pretty rainbow of colours purple, pink, orange and green and boast flavours such as chocolate and strawberry


There is also a social cost to incarceration. Men and women are taken away from their community, their friends, and family which results in a social void. Families are disrupted. Children are without their parents. Men and women are without their spouse or loved ones. Parents are left without their children. Without the family unit, there is a reduction in household income, increase poverty, parentless children, and unsupported elderly. In addition, the fear of incarceration prevents some drug abusers from seeking assistance for their addiction.

We are not saying that Thailand should get rid of jails or prisons. However, the law should take into account that the social and economic costs of incarcerating non-violent drug offenders. Community service and treatment is a better alternative for those convicted of the use of narcotics. Justice Minister PaiboonKoomchaya has moved in the right direction. There should be examination of other prohibited drugs to see if alternative penalties would be a better option in light of the social and financial costs of incarceration.

Until the law changes, foreigners visiting or living in Thailand should not consume illegal narcotics or be in situations where they can be a victim of a drug scam. There are multiple cases of foreigners claiming that they have had drugs planted on them for extortion purposes. We personally know of an Australian man who was in a hotel room with a girl at a red light area when the police entered the room. The police claimed that he was in possession of illegal drugs which they found hidden in the room.

The threat of incarceration in Thailand’s overcrowded jails is an easy tool for extortion. My advice is for foreigners is for them to stay away from using illegal drugs, excessive drinking, and the red light areas. For foreigners who ignore this advice, they should keep the phone number of a trusted local English speaking criminal attorney and the number of their local embassy with them. Following an arrest, signing documents or making pleas without understanding the language or consequences can result in long term imprisonment.

By Robert Virasin and Yutthachai Sangsirisap

Mr. Robert R. Virasin is a licensed U.S. Attorney and managing director of Virasin & Partners. Mr. Yutthachai Sangsirisap is a licensed Thai Attorney at Virasin & Partners. They can be reached at or at




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